Critiques and analysis of industrial and municipal composting methods

I was wondering if anyone can direct me towards or offer me any good permaculture/agro-ecology critiques of the industrial composting methods often used by local authorities. I'm thinking specifically of the in-vessel composting and the open windrow composting methods.

Is soil quality and valuable organisms lost in these processes? And do we just end up with dead soil that is useless after a few months or one season - there's never visible worms, insects or fungi in bags of commercial compost for example?

Does biomimicry processes like hugelkultur offer a better alternative?

Or are these actually efficient and good ways of rapidly turning large volumes of organic matter into compost?

Would appreciate all and any responses! Thank you!

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